EU Elections 24

European Union Structure


The European Union (EU) operates under a complex system of political institutions, each playing a distinct role in the legislative and decision-making processes. These institutions work collaboratively to ensure the effective governance of the EU and the representation of its diverse member states.

At the heart of the EU’s executive branch is the European Commission. This institution holds the responsibility of proposing legislation, implementing policies, enforcing EU laws, managing the budget, and representing the EU internationally. The Commission acts as the driving force behind legislative initiatives, drawing upon its expertise to address the evolving needs of the Union.

The legislative branch of the EU is a bicameral system consisting of the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers. The European Parliament, directly elected by EU citizens, holds a pivotal role in the legislative process. It has the authority to propose, amend, and adopt laws, ensuring that the interests and concerns of the EU’s diverse population are considered. Additionally, the Parliament plays a crucial role in approving the budget and overseeing the activities of the European Commission, holding it accountable for its actions.

The Council of Ministers, representing the member states, serves as the second chamber of the legislative branch. Comprising ministers from each member state, the Council has the power to approve, amend, or reject proposed laws. Furthermore, it coordinates policies and represents the collective interests of member states in specific policy areas. The Council’s decision-making process involves extensive negotiation and collaboration among member states to reach consensus on various issues.

The European Council provides overarching political guidance to the EU. Comprising the heads of state or government of the member states, it establishes the political goals and policies that guide the EU’s actions and decision-making processes. The European Council plays a crucial role in setting the strategic direction for the Union, ensuring coherence and unity among member states.

The democratic legitimacy of the EU is evident through the direct or indirect election of the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers. EU citizens exercise their democratic right to elect representatives who actively participate in the legislative process, shaping the Union’s policies and laws.

In the legislative process, the Commission, Parliament, and Council collaborate closely. The Commission proposes laws, and both the Parliament and the Council must provide their consent for legislation to be enacted. This ensures a system of checks and balances, reflecting the principles of democratic governance within the EU.


European Palestinian Council For Political Relations
Head office: Schuman 6, 1040 Brussels, Belgium
Tel: +32492369558

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